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Sejarah masuknya Islam ke Indonesia

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Walisongo, Java's muslim saints

Walisongo, Java's muslim saints

Sunan Ampel who worked to spread Islam around Java in the late 1400s and early 1500s.
In the history of the dissemination of Islam in Indonesia, Walisongo hold a special place. It is a group of nine missionaries, lived on 15 and 16 century, Walisongo combined pious act, supernatural power, political manoeuvres and military conquest simply that the expansion of the scope of Java to Islam and the neighbouring islands. Their tombs are popular places of pilgrimage, drawing supporters from all over Java and in fact, Muslims in Southeast Asia.

Walisongo, Java-Muslim saints: Introduction

These first missionaries of Islam have been upgraded to the status of walis (the Arabic word "holy") and named Sunan (Javanese nickname as the "woman"). Through the centuries many stories about the lives of these men and their exploits have said.

Much of what we know comes from the collection of facts, quasi-Javanese manuscript, known as the Babad Tanah Jawi ( "History of the Earth Java). There is no attempt to separate from the fiction and not have to lay What can I or archaeological evidence. But , Legends and myths indicate that much is still useful for historians or the fact that you're looking for, especially if they still have influence on the minds and hearts of believers.

Conversion stories that survive are interesting because of a lack of signs of formal conversion of Islam - recitation of the profession of faith (shahada) and male circumcision. Islam is not a major turning point in civilization Java, has been in other parts of the archipelago. With rich cultural heritage, until the arrival of Islam many centuries Javanese population was not easily impressed by acts of pomp and ceremony.

Today, many Javanese describe Islam as Santri or Abang. Excessive simplification, perhaps, but nonetheless useful description of dichotomy in the practice of religion in the vast island. Santris strictly adhere to Islam and Muslims documentation, while Abang have little time for the rites of Islam and documentation shows that even the spirit world, their pre-Islamic ancestors. Some experts describe it as syncretistic, Mutual of mysticism always dry formalism of Islamic doctrine.

In the course of history, there have always been movements within Islam to "reform" or "update" from the original spirit of Islam. These movements, especially popular in the Islamic world during the 19 century AD, came to describe as "reformist" or "modern", rather than what could be Westerner to understand these concepts.

It is regrettable that most of the international community of Muslims in Indonesia - Bali bombings, and Abu Bakar Ba'asyir to subscribe to the burden of such violent Islamic modernity. "This is a response to the subjugation of Muslim countries and peoples of infidels (as in Palestine), blasphemous or purity of sullying Islam decadent Western life, back home, these violent men find something worth the lives of innocent people.

Sometimes these movements for the provisional arrest of success and spiritual power - as the Wahhabis in Saudi Arabia - and sometimes not, - Java Darul Islam rebellion in the decade from 1940 to 1960 in mind. But religion, although purists argue otherwise is always in motion, both in their beliefs and put into practice.

Looking at the historical context in which Islam was the first time in Java and was endorsed by the people could make clear the future direction of religion on the island. But even if not, still great history and values of telling.

Maulana Ibrahim Malik

In this role, we met in the first instance, nine walis - mysterious Maulana Ibrahim Malik, also known as Syekh Magribi. His tomb is located outside the city in the north-eastern Gresik Java. Port city of Gresik was Chinese data, based Chinese traders in the 14 century and quickly became an important center of regional trade. Its origin is unknown, Gujarat, Turkey and Persia is the most popular in the quiz.

Maulana Ibrahim Malik is generally regarded as the first Java-Islamic missionary and father Walisongo. He also attributed the first Pesa division or religious school in Java. But it is his commitment to Sufism, perhaps his most important legacy.

Sufi prevent strict formalism of Islam, instead of union with your personal God, through individual meditation, post, singing and dancing. Sufi, gathered in groups or order them Tariq (in Arabic, "the way"), from Sheikh or professor in the head. Sheikh often can be traced with the founder of the Order and outside, sometimes the Prophet himself.

However, in the course of history, Sufi orders have mixed relations with the main directions of Islam. The first Sufis and claimed mystical union with God, is often misunderstood as claimed equality with the divine, and then death. For example, 9 Al-century mystic Hallaj was executed because he said, have claimed their own identity with God:

If we do not recognize God, at least, to recognize his characters. Sign that I am, I creatively to the truth, because I am the truth… the truth forever.

Other Sufis, this quest for mystical union with the Divine to extremes, the replacement of God with a universal concept of "truth" to eliminate Muslims, and thus, it never in the conventional sense.

Sufism great contribution to the spread of Islam is its ability to absorb within existing religious traditions and cultures of non-Muslim countries. Sufi Islam was, as described great missionaries of religion on the remote ends of the Islamic world - from deserts in sub-Saharan Africa and the steppes of Central Asia for solar islands south-east Asia. De-emphasis of Islamic rites, such as daily prayers, charity and the post, but instead focus on the search for personal meaning and spirituality, religion went to non-believers in a much more attractive light.

Stories tell us that if Maulana Ibrahim Malik arrived in Gresik, Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit still prevail in East Java. However, the kingdom divided by civil wars and people were in deep sorrow. The scientist acknowledged that the aggressive preaching of Islam, will have little impact on society so rich in history and tradition. Nobleness and justice, Islam, which must be displayed by other means.

A good example, Maulana Ibrahim Malik said calmly to the people and without arrogance. He gave alms to the poor, showed proper respect for the elderly and extended a hand of friendship to young people. So, step by step, people in Gresik should be noted that the teachings of Islam. Stories clear that the majority of Ibrahim Malik will be people from low levels of society Majapahit Hinduised. The members of priestly caste Brahman is uninterested in this new religion.

After his headstone, Maulana Ibrahim Malik died in 1419 AD. However, the nascent Muslim community were created that continue to grow and prosper, thanks largely to another Wali that the continuation of their work Islamization - Sunan Ampel.

Sunan Ampel and Demak

Legend says that Sunan Ampel was a member of the nobility Majapahit, whose original name was Raden Rahmat. According to this legend, his mother was Princess Champa (kingdom in Indochina), was married to one of the Royal Kertawijaya brothers. The King granted authority over small geographic region known as traffic lights, in what today is currently in Surabaya.

With funding support from abroad dealer Muslims living in the northern city of Java pasisir, Sunan Ampel increases the local Muslim community to build new mosques and Pesa division. Mosques in the area lights still is his name, though much more new and extended its time. Middle East faces many search lights today indicate local origin of Islam in the region.

Sunan Ampel in the footsteps of Maulana Ibrahim Malik to talk with local people in terms they can understand the revision of existing Javanese myths and legends in Islamic form. Passivity and conciliatory nature of his teachings have remained true to its Sufi trends. He sent missionaries to spread the faith beyond.

But not all was well. This suggests that Sunan Ampel aunt, the wife of King Kertawijaya and Muslim convert, was able to convince the king to accept this new religion, Majapahit aroused indignation among the nobility and priestly caste. They accepted the challenge and the subsequent uprising, Kertawijaya was killed. This caused a new wave of political instability, which destroy Majapahit for decades.

For him and his community destroyed, Sunan Ampel tried to missionaries in all provinces Majapahit, - said that the number nine, in the period - as intructed eight other Sufi teachers for the task. And, as the Council of Nine was created.

Forget be protected Kertwijaya, Sunan Ampel feared for his community in the light. Their fears are compounded by the fact that Trowulan, Majapahit from the capital, was only a few days after running in a southerly direction. As such, would like to relocate its main base of operations to another city, possibly Giri (east) or Demak (West), both of which are also large Muslim following, and even a small military force to a certain degree of protection. Ultimately, Sunan Ampel Giri decided that it was still too close for comfort for Trowulan and moved the centre of their activities in Demak.

Sedimentation over the centuries means that it is today Demak few kilometres from the sea. But in the days of Sunan Ampel, is one of the largest seaports on the northern coast of Central Java. The origin of mysterious city, but there is evidence that was established in the late 15-century of Chinese Muslims, perhaps, a man named Cek Co-Po.

Raden "Fatah" (sometimes referred to as "PATAH"), son of slain King Kertawijaya on Chinese women (and son of Sunan Ampel) founded the Muslim Sultanate of Demak to 1478 AD. If the same person as "Jin Bun", as in the old document known as "the Malay Annals of Semarang and Cirebon is uncertain. It was around this time that the city famous mosque was built several levels.

Although the center of missionary activity have been Demak to 1478 AD, Sunan Ampel in traffic lights remained until his death in 1481 of our era.
Demak - A new centre of Islamic power

Sunan Ampel played help determine Muslims as the dominant force in the port city of the northern coast of Java, giving their economic influence beyond their numbers. It was also the driving force behind the recruitment and training of missionaries (two of their own children themselves was walis, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Drajat).

Later the king Demak, known as Trenggono (which seem to have decided, twice c.1505-18 and c.1521-46), grandson Raden Fatah, apparently led to a series of conquests Demak. Later Javanese court chronicles describe the successes in different ways, but all have shown concern discovery Demak, as the heirs of legitimacy Majapahit (although Majapahit dynasty, possibly already extinct). Currently, center Majapahit had Trowulan of Kediri, which eventually falls in Demak in 1527 AD.

Despite the small Hindu kingdom remained in the eastern tip of Java, AD 1527 is now symbolically, as the year when Hindu Java-Buddhist period of history ends reached the age of Islam. Hindu Majapahit exodus of intellectuals from Bali reached its lowest level, to Hindu Buddhist Java-core, while in exile, remained alive, albeit in a somewhat modified form.

In the coming decade Demak took more and more port cities, kingdoms and principalities under their control. In 1543 AD Penanggungan MT (Hindu holy place) was occupied. In 1545 AD Malang. However, during the expedition against Panarukan in 1546 AD, Sultan Trenggono was allegedly killed.

Demak authorities are unlikely to central control and management of other nations, but perhaps an alliance or a confession Demak senior positions in the loose association. Demak rule in East Java will not survive this long time - until that time there have been other Muslim kingdom, came to the fore - namely, Kudus in the West - but it is clear that the battle for control of the island is now between Muslim kingdom And not between Muslims and Hindus, Buddhists.

It is a small irony of history that the ultimate control over Java, called on any Java-monarch of the mythical date of Gajah Mada Majapahit not drop at all Java, but breed of people worldwide - - Dutch.
More information about Walisongo

I am only a brief introduction to the history of Walisongo, and two of the most famous Walis - Maulana Ibrahim Malik and Sunan Ampel. There are many other fascinating stories are told about other Walis.

There are some excellent online sources of information for those interested in more information about Java Muslim saints, see references below.